Friday, April 21, 2017

Lit Review 5

2) Guerrero, A.A. 2010. “The Determinants of College Student Retention.” Dissertation published by UMI Dissertations Publishing.

3) The study aims to discover the factors related to the student retention rate. The goal was to identify factors that influenced students' commintement to remaining enrolled in college. A lot of factors were identified but the most significant relationship was wether a student was enorlled part time or full time. Guerero found that part time sutdents were 230% more likely to drop out compared to full time students.

4) Adam Guerrero is passionate about higher education and looks to explore the passions and challenging ideas that allow studnets to reach their full potential



7) Part time students are more likely to drop out. Part time students most likey are those who cannot afford to go full time adn by definity are off-campus students. Thus off campus students have a high rate of not finishing school.

Lit Review 4

2) Nonis, S.A. and Hudson, G.I. 2010. “Performance of College Students: Impacts of Study Time and Study Habits.” Journal of Education for Business 85 no. 4: 229-248.

3) The authors examined the impact of both time spent studying and time spent working on academic performance. Furthermore, motivation and ability was looking further into with respect to study time and its impact on academic performace. As their conclusion, they found out that motivation, a nonability variable, plays a major role in the ability of influence academic performance.

4) Sarath Nonis is a professor at Arkansas State University and has published in the Journal of the Academy of Marketin Science, Journal of Business Research and many other. He was won research awards at Arkansas University.

Gail Hudson is a professor of Marketing at Arkansas University. She in interested in research on motivation and student learning.

5) Performance: Performance is defined as ability x motivation. A student with high ability and low motivation is unlikely to perform well.

Motivation: The driving force behind someone. It is their motive and why they do what they do. THis is extremely important to  Nonis and Hudson in the study

-"These results indicate that the relationships that college students’ abilities (ACT composite score), motivation (achievement striving), and behavior (TSA and TSW) have with academic performance are more complex than what individuals believe them to be."pg 156

-"TSW did not directly affect academic performance."-pg 156

-"The results suggested that nonability variables like motivation and study time significantly interact with ability to influence academic performance. Contrary to popular belief, the amount of time spent studying or at work had no direct influence on academic performance. The authors also addressed implications and direction for future research." -pg 151

7) They found out that GPAs were not directly related to the amount of study time a student was able to commit, instead it was the ability to concentrate that may be a better predictor of performance. Commuter students have more commitments and family obligation and their performance is impacted because of this.

Lit Review 3

2) Kuh, G. D., Gonyea, R. M. and Palmer, M. 2001. “The Disengaged Commuter Student: Fact or Fiction?” Commuter Perspectives 27 no. 1: 2-5.

3) Summary: This paper tries to answer the question of whether commuter students are more disengaged than those living on campus. The study consisted of over 105,000 first year students and fourth year students across 470 different four year colleges. They came to a conclusion that students who live on campus are more engaged overall compared to those who commute.

4) Authors:

George D Kuh: He is a research professor of education policy the University of Illinois and Chancellor's Professor of Higher Education Emertus at Indiana University. He has over 400 publications on different topics like student engagement and campus cultures.

Robert M Gonyea: He is an Associate Director of the Center for Post Secondary Research. He coordinates and conducts reasearch for the National Survey of Student Engagement and othe projects. He also have multiple publications.

Megan Palmer: She is a Assistant Dean for Faculty Affairs and Professional Development as well as Director of the Academy of Teaching Scholars at Indiana University. She has received several awards in her field.

5) Key Terms:
Commuter Student: Those students whose place of residence while attending college is not in a campus residence hall or ina fraternity/sorority house.

Engagement: This is broken down into many forms such as: Levels of academic challenge, active and collaborative learning, student interactions with faculty memeber, eriching educational experiences and supportive campus environment.

6) Quotes:

-"This means that driving commuters really do have less contact with their teachers (especially seniors) and do not take advantage of such opportunities as co-curricular activities, community service, study abroad, internships and so forth." pg 8

-"Once again, all the effect sizes associated with significant mean differences are positive, indicating that residential students reported higher gains than students living off campus."-pg 8

-"It’s true that students who live on campus are more engaged overall compared with students who commute"-pg 9

7) Students who live on campus are more engaged and gain a lot more in personal and social competence, practicalc competence and general education than those who commute. These gains transfer into them doing better in classes and overall getting a better experience at college. So there is a clear advantage in living on campus compared to commuting.

Lit Review 2

2) Nelson, Danielle, Kaustav Volume Misra, Gail E. Sype, and Wayne Mackie. Volume 12, Number 1 An Analysis Of The Relationship Between Distance From Campus And GPA Of Commuter Students (n.d.): n. pag. Web.

3) This was a study done by a few PHD professoar and a MBA student from Saginaw Valley State University in which their aim was to find the relationship between distance from Campus and GPA of Commuter Students. Using a sample size of 403 students from Saginaw Valley University, the study found that there is a negative relationship between distance from campus and gpa. So, as the distance from campus increases, the gpa decreases. 


Kaustav Misra, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor Economics at Saginaw Valley State University. His research has been published in refereed journals such as Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Economics of Education Review, The Journal of Socio-Economics, and many other notable journals.

Gail E. Sype, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor of Management and Marketing at Saginaw Valley State University. She is the author of numerous scholarly articles and books in management. Her research has been published in refereed journals such as Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management and International Journal of Business Research. 

Wayne Mackie, Ph.D. is a Professor of Finance in the Accounting/Law/Finance Department at Saginaw Valley State University.  Professor Mackie’s work has been cited in various journals on topics such as Developing a Homegrown Course Management System and Collaborating through Community Interactions: The CAMS Environment.

Danielle Nelson is an alumna of the MBA program at Saginaw Valley State University. 

Key Terms:

Student Integration Model: The capability of students adapting to the schools's people, processes and teaching are directly influenced by their engagement level. The engagement level is dependent of the whether students live on campus or commute.

Life Centered Students:Those students who are more focused on what they want out of life and their future success. They are more about the process.

6) Quotes:

-"The negative relationship between distance and OGPA in the model explains that as commuting distance increases, a student’s OGPA is likely to drop while all other factors in the model remain constant." pg 42

-"However, the distance squared variable is significant at the 1 percent level and positively enters into the equation. This means, OGPA is likely to increase for commuter students who have to travel a significant distance every day in order to attend classes. We have found that increasing travelling distance is related to students’ OGPA. It may be that students who have to drive significant distance for classes are aware of the sacrifice they are making and want to make that sacrifice count by doing well academically." pg 42

-"Their results indicated that living on campus was related to gains in social and personal competence. That enhanced level of competence may help students living on campus to be more successful in their courses." pg 39

7) Value

The research shows, through data and statistical analysis, that there is a negative relationship between distance and GPA. As you increase distance from campus, the students GPA drops. However, it also shows that if the distance is really big, that there is no negative impact on GPA, as those who travel long distances know the sacrifice they are making, thus become more committed. 

Blog 5

Bozic, R. 2008. Student Employment during the Transition College in the United States. Research Report: RTI Press Publication RR-0001-0802
Kuh, G. D., Gonyea, R. M. and Palmer, M. 2001. “The Disengaged Commuter Student: Fact or Fiction?” Commuter Perspectives 27 no. 1: 2-5.

Nelson, Danielle, Kaustav Misra, Gail E. Sype, and Wayne Mackie. "An Analysis Of The Relationship Between Distance From Campus And Gpa Of Commuter Students." Journal of International Education Research (JIER) 12.1 (2016): 37. Web.
Newbold, J.J., Mehta, S.S. and Forbus, P. 2011. “Commuter Students: Involvement and Identification with an Institution of Higher Education.” Educational Leadership Journal 15 no. 2: 141-153.
O'Toole, D., Peterson, S. and Wetzel, J.N. 1999. “Factors Affecting Student Retention Probabilities: A Case Study.” Journal of Economics and Finance 23 no. 1: 45-55.
Tinto, V. 1999. “Taking Student Success Seriously: Rethinking the First Year of College.” NACADA Journal 19 no. 5: 5-9.

Blog 4

Himang Patel
Professor Goeller
Research in the Disciplines: College!
Feb 28, 2017
Research Proposal

Working Title: The Impact of Commuting vs Living on Campus on GPA

In this paper, I will discuss the impact commuting has on students GPA as opposed to living on campus. I will explore the different factors that contribute to the GPA trends among those commuting and living on campus.

Research Question:
What factors impact a student's GPA and how much of the GPA outcome can be attributed to their living situation?

Theoretical Framework
There are many factors that contribute to a student’s GPA in college and their living situations seems to be just one of them. It was noted by Bozic that the first years of college are a transitional time in students life and their living arrangements can impact daily living skills, time management and personal accountability on top of their GPA for students who live on campus (Bozic, 2008). On the other hand, living off campus is a challenge because the student might have other obligations for their time which interferes with the student ever find a place to belong (O’Toole, Peterson, Wetzel, 1999). The student integration model was founded by Tinto which assesses the impact of off-campus and on-campus residency. He argues that students who have had the chance to adapt to the norms of the university may feel like they fit in better with the culture, and that sense of fit brings about the sense of belonging which motivates that to finish their degrees.
Besides this, there have been other studies done. Newbold, Mehta and Forbus analyzed commuter students vs residential students and their academic performance. They found out that commuter students are usually older and come from blue collar families. This brings about the idea of social classes and their success in college.
A study done by Kuh, Gonyea and Palmer showed that residential students have an advantage over commuter students because living on campus was closely correlated to social and personal competence and this competence helped them be more successful in classes. On the other hand, commuter students have lower levels of interaction with faculty and participate less in extra curricular activities. They feel inferior when it comes to their peers in skill development which hinders their educational performance.

Research and Plan

I have found many articles and studies that address my question. Some of those studies are mentioned above. Each one focuses on a different factor about commuters vs residential students and says how it impacts educational performance. I will narrow down these factors and try to formulate my paper after those factors.
Next, I will need to go through all these studies again and find the most impactful factors based on the data in the studies.

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Lit Review 1

Citation:Tinto, V. 1999. “Taking Student Success Seriously: Rethinking the First Year of College.” NACADA Journal 19 no. 5: 5-9.

Summary: Tinto speaks to the five main factors impacting colleges when it comes to the retention of college students. These five factors are expectation, support, feedback, involvment and learning. He goes to show how each of these factors play a cruical role in retaining college students.

Author: Vincent Tinto is a Distinguished University Professor at Syracuse University and former chair of the Higher Education Program. He is very well known for his reserach and writing on higher education and learning communities and how they impact student success.

Key Concepts:

Involvement: In order to retain students, students must feel involved at the university, whether that is with staff or friends. Their graduation depends on the connections they are able to build.

Learning Communities: Registration of courses that enables students to take courses together rather than apart. This enables the material they learn to be applicabe and somehow related to the other classes they are taking.

-"The more students are academically and socially involved, the more likely are they to persist and graduate" pg 3

-"A wide range of studies in a variety of settings and for a range of students have confirmed that the more frequently students engage with faculty, staff, and their peers, the more likely, other things being equally, that they will persist and graduate. Simply put involvement matters" pg 3-4

- "Even among students who persist, students who are more involved in learning, especially with others, learn more and show greater levels of intellectual development" pg 4

Tinto talks about how much a key role involvement with faculty and friends plays in staying in college. This is the exact time of involvement commuter students lack overall. They do not have time for this type of involvement because of the other types of obligations they have in order to just go to school. Thus, not being involved, plays a major role in their ability to stay in school.